Essay/Memoir Bibliography

I set this up as a resource for my own teaching and offer it here to students in the various creative nonfiction classes I each, which veer toward the experimental side of essay and memoir writing. The list draws from many online resources as well as the bibliographies of several of the books and articles also cited here. It reflects my ongoing investigations of nonfiction writing and experimentation. This is always in the process of being updated and might eventually be annotated. Feel free to use this for yourself, and, depending on how much you use, consider sharing credit or linking directly here.  If you have any suggestions for additions, please email me at daniel.nester at strose dot edu. I hope to keep building this list. “TK” stands for “to come,” and means that some information needs to be filled in to make the citation complete.

Ackerman, Diane. A Natural History of the Senses. TK

Adams, Timothy Dow. Telling Lies in Modern American Autobiography. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Adorno, T.W. “The Essay As Form.” Trans. Bob Hullot-Kentor. New German Critique. Spring-Summer (1984):  151-171.

Agee, James. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men. TK

Ali, Kazim. Bright Felon: Autobiography and Cities. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2009

Almond, Steve. Candyfreak: A Journey Through the Chocolate Underbelly of America TK

Anderson, Chris, ed. Literary Nonfiction: Theory, Criticism, Pedagogy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989.

Anderson, Chris. Style as Argument: Contemporary American Nonfiction. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987.

Anderson, Chris. “Hearsay Evidence and Second-Class Citizenship.” College English. 50:3 (1988): 300-308.

Annas, Pamela J. “Style as Politics: A Feminist Approach to the Teaching of Writing.” College English. 47(1985): 360-371.

Arnold, Matthew.

Atkins, Douglas. “Tracing the Essay; Through Experience to Truth.” University of Georgia Press, 2005.

Atkins, G. Douglas.  “In Other Words:  Gardening for love–the work of the essayist.”  The Kenyon Review. 13 (1991):  57-69.

Atkins, G. Douglas. Estranging the Familiar: Toward a Revitalized Critical Writing. Athens, GA:  U of Georgia P, 1992

Atkins, G. Douglas. Tracing the Essay: Through Experience to Truth. Athens, GA: U of Georgia P, 2005.

Atkins, G. Douglas. “Envisioning the Stranger’s Heart.” College English. 56.6 (October 1994): 629-641.

Atwan, Robert. Best American Essays.

Auster, Paul. The Invention of Solitude.

Baldwin, James. Notes of a Native Son.

Ballenger, Bruce. “An Amateur’s Raid in a World of Specialists: The Essayist as Researcher.” Beyond Note Cards. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1999: 72-95.

Ballenger, Bruce.  “Bibliography of the Personal Essay.” 1 Sept 2010. <>.

Bangs, Lester.

Banks, William. “Written Through the Body: Disruptions and ‘Personal’ Writing.” College English. 66.1 (September 2003): 21-40.

Bannon, Lil et al.  “The Five Paragraph Essay and the Deficit Model of Education.” English  Journal  98.2  (2008) :  16–2 <>

Baraka, Amiri. Blues People.

Barrington, Judith.

Barthes, Roland.

Barzun, Jacques.

Bass, Rick,

Bartkevicius, Jocelyn. “A Form of One’s Own: Virginia Woolf’s Art of the Portrait Essay.” The Iowa Review 22.1 (1992): 123-32.

Baudrillard, Jean. Cool Memories I-V.

Baxter, Charles. The Business of Memory: The Art of Remembering in an Age of Forgetting. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Graywolf Press, 1999.

Benjamin, Walter. TK

Bensmaïa, Réda. The Barthes Effect: The Essay as Reflective Text. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

Binkley, Harold C. “Essays and Letter Writing.” PMLA 41.2 (June 1926): 342-361.

Birkerts, Sven. The Art of Time in Memoir: Then, Again. St. Paul, Minnesota: Graywolf P, 2008.

Biss, Eula. TK

Bishop, Wendy. “Suddenly Sexy: Creative Nonfiction Rear-Ends Composition.” College English. (65:3) 2003: 257-275. [pdf]

Blau Duplessis, Rachel. “f-Word: An Essay on the Essay.” American Literature. 68:1 (1996): 15-45.

Bouillier, Gregoire. The Mystery Guest: An Account. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006.

Bouillier, Gregoire. Report of Myself. New York: Mariner Books, 2009.

Boully, Jenny. TK

Boynton, Robert S. The New New Journalism: Conversations with America’s Best TK

Brainard, Joe. I Remember.

Braun, Rebecca. “‘Mich in Variationen Erzählen’: Günter Grass and the Ethics of Autobiography.” Modern Language Review. 103 (2008) 1051-66.

Brodkey, Harold. This Wild Darkness: The Story of My Death

Broyard, Anatole. Intoxicated by My Illness

Bruner, Jerome. “The Narrative Construction of Reality.” Critical Inquiry. 18:1 (1991): 1-21.

Butrym, Alexander J., ed. Essays on the Essay: Redefining the Genre. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989.

Calvino, Italo. The Road to San Giovanni

Camus, Albert. Lyrical and Critical Essays. Trans. Ellen Conroy Kennedy. Ed. Philip Thody. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1968.

Canetti, Elias. The Agony of Files: Notes and Notations

Capote, Truman. In Cold Blood

Carsone, Anne. TK

Chadbourne, Richard M.  “A Puzzling Literary Genre: Comparative views of the essay.”  Comparative Literature Studies. 20 (1983): 133-53.

Chamberlain, Essie. “A Note to Teachers” and “Introduction.” Essays Old and New. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company., 1926.

Chandler, Daniel. “An Introduction to Genre Theory.” 20 Aug 2010 <>

Chapman, David. “Form and Meaning: Writing the Counterpoint Essay.” Journal of Advanced Composition. 11:1 (1991): 73-81.

Chevalier, Tracy, ed. Encyclopedia of the Essay. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.

Conroy, Frank. Stop-Time.

Crosley, Sloane. TK

The Cruise. Dir. Bennett Miller. Perf. Timothy “Speed” Levitch. Lions Gate, 1998.

Cutler, Randy Lee. “The ZDM rezone: an electronic theme park at the horizon line between lived reality and the imagination.” Source unknown.

D’Agata, John. Halls of Fame, About a Mountain.

D’Angelo, Frank J. “A Generative Rhetoric of the Essay.” College Composition and Communication. 25: 5 (1974): 388-396.

DasGupta, Sayantani. Stories of Illness and Healing: Women Write Their Bodies. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University, 2007.

David Holzman’s Diary. Dir. Jim McBride. Perfs L.M. Kit Carson, Eileen Dietz, Lorenzo Mans, Louise Levine, and Fern McBride Made in 1967. Second Run DVD, 2006.

Daum, Meghan. My Misspent Youth.

Daum, Meghan. Life Would Be Perfect If I Lived In That House.

Dawson, William J. and Coningsby W. Dawson. The Great English Essayists. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1932.

Derrida, Jacques. “The Law of Genre.” Critical Inquiry. 7: 1 (1980): 55-81.

Deutsch, R. H. “Poetry or Prose?” College Composition and Communication. 15: 1 (1964): 38-40.

DiYanni, Robert.  “Fictitious Facts and the Question of Genre.”  What Do I Know?  Ed. Janis Forman.  Portsmouth, NH:  Boynton/Cook, 1995.

Didion, Joan. Slouching Toward Bethlehem.

Didion, Joan. The Year of Magical Thinking.

Dillard, Annie. Pilgrim at Tinker Creek.

Dillard, Annie. Teaching a Stone to Talk.

Dobler, Bruce. “Bruce Dobler’s Creative Nonfiction Compendium.” 19 Aug 2010 <>.

Dobrée, Bonamy. English Essayists. New York: Collins, 1946.

Duhamel, Denise. Milles et un Sentiments. Danbury, CT: Firewheel Editions, 2004.

Dunaway, Michell. “Long Live The Essay/The Essay Must Die.” 19 Aug 2010 Visual Thesaurus, “Teacers on Teaching” column. <>.

Eakin, Paul John. How Our Lives Become Stories: Making Selves. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Eggers, Dave. A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius.

Elias, Camelia. The Fragment: Towards A History And Poetics Of A Performative Genre (European University Studies: Series 18, Comparative Literatu). Bern: Peter Lang, 2004

Eliot, T.S. “The Borderline of Prose.” The New Statesman, May 19, 1917: 157-159. [pdf]

Elliott, Stephen. The Adderall Diaries. TK

Emanual, Lynn. My Life. TK

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. TK

Eno, Brian and Peter Schmidt. “Oblique Strategies.”

Epstein, Joseph. “Piecework: Writing the Essay.” In: Plausible Prejudices: Essays on American Writing. New York: Norton, 1985. 349-411.

Faery, Rebecca B.  “On the Possibilities of the Essay: A meditation.” The Iowa Review. 20 (1990): 19-27.

Farrell, Thomas J. “The Female and Male Modes of Rhetoric.” College English, Vol. 40, No. 8 (Apr., 1979), 909-921.

Feneon, Felix. Novels in Three Lines. New York: New York Review Books Classics, 2007.

Fish, Stanley. “Being Interdisciplinary is Very Hard To Do.” In: Interdisciplinary: Essays From the Literature. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1998; 239-249.

Fleishman, Avrom. Figures of Autobiography: The Language of Self-Writing. Berkeley: U of California P, 1983.

Fleischman, Suzanne. Gender, the Personal, and the Voice of Scholarship: A Viewpoint. Signs. Vol. 23, No. 4. (Summer, 1998), 975-1016.

Flynn, Nick. Another Bullshit Night in Suck City.

Forman, Janis, ed. What Do I Know?  Portsmouth, NH:  Boynton/Cook, 1995.

Fort, Keith.  “Form, Authority, and the Critical Essay.”  College English. 32 (1971):  629-39.

From The Journals of Jean Seberg. Dir. Mark Rappaport. Perfs. Mary Beth Hurt, Jean Seberg. Water Bearer Films, 1998.

Gass, William H. “Emerson and The Essay.” In: Habitations of the Word. New York: Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Gass, William H. On Being Blue: A Philosophical Inquiry. New York: David R. Godine, 1991.

Gerard, Philip and Carolyn Forche, eds., Writing Creative Nonfiction.

Goldbarth, Albert. Many Circles

Goldberg, Natalie. An Old Friend From Far Away: The Practice of Writing Memoir. New York: Free Press, 2007.

Goldthwaite, Melissa. “Out of and Back into the Box: Redefining Essays and Options.”

Good, Graham. “Identity and Form in the Modern Autobiographical Essay.” Prose Studies 15.1 (1992): 99-117.

Good, Graham.  The Observing Self: Rediscovering the Essay.  London:  Routledge, 1988.

Gornick, Vivian. The Situation and the Story. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 2002.

Graham, Paul. “The Age of the Essay.” 21 Aug 2010 Sept 2004 <>

Grealy, Lucy. The Autobiography of a Face. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994.

Gualtieri, Elana. “The Essay as Form: Virginia Woolf and the Literary Tradition.” Textual Practice. 12: 1 (1998): 49-67.

Gutkind, Lee. TK

Haefner, Joel. “Democracy, Pedagogy, and the Personal Essay.” College English 54 (1992): 127-137.

Hampl, Patricia. “Memory and Imagination.” In: I Could Tell You Stories: Sojourns in the Land of Memory. New York: Norton, 1999.

Harris, Wendell V. “Reflections on the Peculiar Status of the Personal Essay.” College English. 58: 8 (1996): 934-953.

Hartle, Ann. Michel de Montaigne: Accidental Philosopher. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2003. Web.

Hartman, Geoffrey H.. Minor Prophecies: The Literary Essay in the Culture Wars. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Hassan, Ihab. “POSTmodernISM.” New Literary History. 3:1: (1971): 5-30.

Heilker, Paul.  The Essay: Theory and Pedagogy for an Active Form.  Urbana, IL:  NCTE, 1996.

Hejinian, Lyn. My Life. Los Angeles: Green Integer, 2002.

Hejduk, John. “Sentences on the House and Other Sentences.” In: Uncontrollable Beauty: Toward a New Aesthetics, Bill Beckley and David Shapiro, eds. New York: Allworth Press, 2001.

Hesse, Doug[las]. “Writings About the Essay, Theory and Criticism” 14 May <>.

Hewett, Heather. “In Search of an “I”: Embodied Voice and the Personal Essay.” Women’s Studies. 33 (2004): 719-741.

Hickey, Dave. TK

Hoaglund, Edward. “WhatI Think, What I Am.” The New York Times Book Review, June 27, 1976.

Holdheim, W. Wolfgang. Preface and “Introduction: The Essay as Knowledge in Progress.” The Hermeneutic Mode: Essays on Time in Literature and Literary Theory. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Holzer, Jenny. “Inflammatory Essays.”

Horowitz, Irving Louis. “Autobiography as the Presentation of Self for Social Immortality.” New Literary History. 9 (1): 173-179.

Howarth, William. “Itinerant Passages: Recent American Essays.” Sewanee Review. 96 (1998): 633-643.

Howarth, William. “Some Principles of Autobiography.” New Literary History. 5:2 (1974): 363-381.

Huber, Sonya. “Recommended Works of Creative Nonfiction for Sonya’s CNF students.” 19 Aug 2010 <>.

Hudgins, Andrew. “An Autobiographer’s Lies.” The American Scholar. 65 (1996): 541-553.

Huxley, Aldous. “Preface.” Collected Essays. New York: Bantam, 1964; v-ix.
This is where the “three-poled frame of reference” comes from.

Jack, Ian. “Memories are made of this–and that.” The Guardian. 8 February 2003.

Jerky Boys. Jerky Boys 1-13. Fontana Island, 1998.

Joeres, Ruth-Ellen Boetcher, Elizabeth Mittman.  The Politics of the Essay:  Feminist Perspectives.  Bloomington, IN:  Indiana UP, 1993.

Joubert, Joseph. The Notebooks of Joseph Joubert. New York: New York Review Books Classics, 2005.

Kauffmann, Lane R.  “The Skewed Path: Essaying as Un-methodical Method.”  Diogenes. 143 (1988):  66-92.

Kaysen, Susanna. Girl, Interrupted. New York: Random House: Turtle Bay, 1993.

Kazin, Alfred.  “The Essay As Modern Form.”  The Open Forum: Essays for our Time.  New York: Harcourt, 1961. vii-xi.

King, Larry. “It’s My Two Cents.” USA Today and syndicated, c. 1987-2001.

Kitchen, Judith. Distance and Direction; Short Takes: Brief Encounters with Contemporary Nonfiction

Klaus, Carl H. “Embodying the Self: Malady and the Personal Essay.” The Iowa Review 25 (1995): 177-192.

Klaus, Carl. H. “On Virginia Woolf on the Essay.” The Iowa Review 20.2 (1990): 28-34.

___. “Essayists on the Essay.”  Literary Nonfiction: Theory, Practice, Pedagogy.
Ed. Chris Anderson.  Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois U P, 1989. 155-75.

___.  “Montaigne on His Essays: Toward a Poetics of Self.”  The Iowa Review. 21 (1991): 1-23.

___. “The Chameleon ‘I’: On Voice and Personality in the Personal Essay.” Voices on Voice: Definitions, Perspectives, Inquiry. Ed. Kathleen Blake Yancey. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1994. 111-129.

___.   The Made-Up Self: Impersonation in the Personal Essay.   Iowa City: U of Iowa Press, 2010.

Koestenbaum, Wayne. TK

Korhonen, Kuisma. Textual Friendship: The Essay as Impossible Encounter, from Plato and Montaigne to Levinas and Derrida. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2006.

Larson, Thomas. The Memoir and The Memoirist: Reading and Writing Personal Narrative. Athens, OH: Swallow/Ohio University Press, 2007.

Lehman, Daniel W.  “Nonfictional Narrative and the Problem of Truth.”  Matters of Fact: Reading Nonfiction over the Edge.  Columbus, OH:  Ohio State U P, 1997:  1-39.

Lehman, David. “The Prose Poem: An Alternative to Verse.” American Poetry Review. March/April 2003: TK

Lejeune, Philippe. On Autobiography. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

Lejeune, Philippe. “Autobiography in the Third Person.” New Literary History. 9:1 (1977):27-50.

Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph. The Waste Books. New York: New York Review Books Classics, 2000.

Long, Priscilla. “New Genres and the Authors Who Cross Them.” Michigan Quarterly Review. 43:3 (2004): 454-466.

Lopate, Phillip. “What Happened to the Personal Essay.” In: Against Joie De Vivre. New York: Poseidon Press, 1989. 75-86.

Lopate, Phillip. “Reflection and Retrospection: A Pedagogic Mystery Story.”

Lopate, Phillip. “Writing Personal Essays: On the Necessity of Turning Oneself Into a Character.”

Lorde, Audre. The Cancer Journal. Argyle, NY: Spinsters, 1980.

Lukacs, Georg. “The Nature and Form of the Essay.” In: Soul and Form.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1978. 1-18.

Madden, Patrick.”Essays on The Essay.” The whole site is chockful of super essays, interviews, syllabi, and other resources. Madden is a fine essayist himself. This is a good place to start.

Manguso, Sarah. The Two Kinds of Decay. TK.

Maso, Carole. “Break Every Rule.” Language, Longing, and Moments of Desire. Washington D.C., 2000.

Maynard, Joyce. “An 18-Year-Old Looks Back on Life.” The New York Times, 23 April 1972.

McElwee, Ross. The Ross McElwee DVD Collection (Sherman’s March/Time Indefinite/Six O’Clock News/Bright Leaves/Backyard/Charleen). First Run Features, 2005.

Miller, Brenda and Suzanne Paola, eds. Tell it Slant. New York: McGraw Hill, 2004.

Monson, Ander. TK

— “Keyboarding.” Zone 3

Montaigne, Michel De. Essais.

Moore, Dinty W. The Truth of the Matter: Art and Craft in Creative Nonfiction. New York: Longman, 2006.

Morson, Gary. Articles on the aphorism TK.

Mowitt, John. “The Essay as Instance of the Social Character of Private Experience.” Prose Studies. 12 (1989): 274-284.

Nabokov, Vladimir. Speak Memory.

Natarajan, Uttara. “The Veil of Familiarity: Romantic Philosophy and the Familiar Essay.” Studies in Romanticism (Spring 2003): 24-44. ProQuest.

Nehring, Cristina. “Our Essays, Ourselves.” Harper’s Magazine. 306 (2003): 7984.

Neisser, Ulric. “Five Kinds of Self-Knowledge.” Philosophical Psychology. 1 (1988): 35-59.

Neisser, Ulric, and JoNell Adair Usher. “Childhood Amnesia and the Beginnings of Memory for Four Early Life Events.” Journal of Experimental Psychology. 122.2 (1993): 155-165.

Nelson, Maggie. Bluets. Seattle: Wave Books: 2009.

Newkirk, Thomas. “Montaigne’s Revisions.” Rhetoric Review 24.3: 298-315.

O’Hara, Frank. “Personism: A Manifesto.”

Olney, James. Metaphors of Self: The Meaning of Autobiography. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Osman, Jena. An Essay is Asterisks. New York: Roof Books, 2004.

Ostriker, Alicia. “Ecclesiates as Witness: A Personal Essay.” American Poetry Review. January/February 2005: 7-13.

Ozick, Cynthia. “Portrait of th Essay as a Warm Body.” The Atlantic. 281: 3 (1998): 114-118.

Pascal, Roay. Design and Truth in Autobiography. London: Routledge & Kegan, TK.

Payne, William Morton. Leading American Essayists. 1910. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries P, 1968.

Pessoa, Fernando. The Book of Disquiet.

Peterson, Linda H. “Gender and the Autobiographical Essay: Research Perspectives, Pedagogical Practices.” College Composition and Communication. 42: 2. (1991): 170-183.

Place, Vanessa and Robert Fitterman. Notes on Conceptualisms. Brooklyn: Ugly Duckling Presse, 2009.

Podhoretz, Norman. “The Article as Art.”  Harper’s. July 1958: 74-81.

Porchia, Antonio. Voices. Port Townsend, WA: Copper Canyon Press, 2003.

Renza, Louis A. “The Veto of the Imagination: A Theory of Autobiography.” New Literary History. 9: 1 (1977):1-26.

Retallack, Joan. The Poethical Wager. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.

Richardson, James. Vectors: Aphorisms and Ten-Second Essays.

Rigby, Donna. “Narrative, Creative Nonfiction and the Personal Essay: Housing the Text.” Weber Studies. 22: 3 (2006): 18-31.

Rilke, Rainer Maria. Letters on Cezanne and Letters to a Young Poet

Rock Hudson’s Home Movies. Dir. Mark Rappaport.

Root, Robert. “This is What the Spaces Say.” <>.  (CCCC Presentation, March 15, 2001).

Rosal, Patrick. “Improvisations: Everything I Know About Pianos.” Drunken Boat #13.

Sampsell, Kevin. A Common Pornography. New York: Harper, 2010.

Sanborn, Jean Donovan. “The Essay Dies in the Academy, circa 1900.” Pedagogy in the Age of Politics. Ed. Patricia Sullivan and Donna J. Qualley. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1994: 121-138.

Sanders, Scott Russell. “The Singular First Person.” The Sewanee Review. 96 (1988): 658-672.

Scholes, Robert and Carl H. Klaus.  Elements of the Essay.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Seo, Byung-In. “Defending the Five-Paragraph Essay.”  English Journal 97. 2 (Nov 2007): 15-16.

Shields, David. “Reality Hunger: A Manifesto.” Seneca Review: A Special Issue On the Lyric Essay. 37(2) Fall 2007: 79-90.

Silverman, Sue William. “Sue William Silverman’s Contemporary Creative Nonfiction Reading List.” 19 Aug 2010.


Smith, Alexander. “On the Writing of Essays.” Dreamthorp: A Book of Essays Written in the Country. London: Routledge, 1905. 26-54. Project Gutenberg <>.

Smith, Kerri. “In Defense of the Five-Paragraph Essay.” English Journal 95. 4 (Mar 2006): 16-17.

Smith, Lauren. “Kimonos & Cashmere: Tasteful Inquiry in Memoir.” The Writer’s Chronicle. 43 (2010): 68-72.

Sontag, Susan. Illness as Metaphor. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1978.

Spellmeyer, Kurt. TK

Steiner, Georges. TK

Stuckey-French, Ned. The American Essay in the American Century. Columbia and London: The University of Missouri Press, 2011.

Stuckey-French, Ned and Carl Klaus, eds. Essayists on the Essay: From Montaigne Until Our Time.  Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2012.

Styron. William.

Tarnation. Dir. Jonathan Caoette. Wellspring Media, 2005.

Traig, Jennifer and Eggers, Dave, eds. The Autobiographer’s Handbook: The 826 National Guide to Writing Your Memoir. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2008.

Waldie, J.D. Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir. New York: Norton, 1995.

Walker, Hugh. The English Essay and Essayists. New York: J.M. Dent, 1915.

Whitmore, Charles. “The Field of the Essay.” PMLA 36 (1921): 551-564.

Winterowd, W. Ross. “Rediscovering the Essay.” Journal of Advanced Composition. 8 (1988): 146-157.

Wolfe, Tom. “The New Journalism.” In: The New Journalism. Ed. Tom Wolfe ad E.W. Johnson. New York: Harper and Row, 1973. 3-52.

Woolf, Virginia. “The Modern Essay.” Vol. 2 of Collected Essays. London: Hogarth, 1966. 41-50.

Woolf, Virginia. “On Being Ill.” Ashfield, Mass.: Paris Press, 2002.

Woolf, Virginia. Moments of Being; The Death of the Moth and Other Essays. TK.

Zeiger, William.  “The Personal Essay and Egalitarian Rhetoric.”  In: Literary Nonfiction.  Ed. Chris Anderson.  Carbondale: SIUP, 1989.

Zinsser, William, ed., Inventing the Truth: The Art and Craft of Memoir.